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A.7.3 Use of paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography SL

Paper Chromatography uses cellulose as the stationary phase. Mixtures of inks or even sugars will partition between the stationary phase and the mobile phase (eluent). Mobile phases can be water, alcohol, propanone etc.Retention factor (Rf) values can be used to determine the components of the mixture.Rf = distance moved by component in mixture divided by distance moved vertically by eluent from base line TLC is used to separate biological mixtures (eg amino acids). The stationary phase here is alumina or silica.Developers, such as ninhydrin may be needed to see invisible components.Column chromatography uses a tube plugged with glass wool and filled with alumina or silica. This is used for bulk separations. Solvents can be changed during the experiment. Different substances can then be individually collected.
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