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Karel Svoboda (HHMI) Part 2: Plasticity and signaling of single synapses

In the second part of this lecture, Svoboda focuses on how the imaging techniques introduced in his first lecture can be used to study calcium signaling and downstream pathways such as Ras, at the level of single synapses. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars I6-z0Yqj1dE Science & Technology Karel Svoboda (HHMI) Part 1: Optical studies of individual synapses 2605 4303 Neurons are connected to form complex networks by tiny junctions called synapses. Svoboda reviews the process of synaptic transmission and the methods traditionally used to image neurons and their synapses. He then describes powerful new methodologies that allow synaptic transmission and calcium signaling in individual synapses to be measured in intact tissue. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars stmDrLBjFAA Science & Technology Nico Stuurman (UCSF): Fluorescence Microscopy 2445 11660 Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon in which a compound absorbs light and re-emits this as light of a usually higher wavelength. Since the wavelengths of the excitation light source and the emitted fluorescence can be separated very well, we can detect fluorescence with very high sensitivity, making it possible to visualize even single molecules. Many different fluorescent probes for cellular components have been developed, including genetically encoded probes like the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). For these reasons, fluorescence microscopy is a very powerful tool in Cell Biology research. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars yL1GwP5emRE Science & Technology Roger Beachy (Danforth Center) Part 2: Genetic Engineering for Virus Resistance in Plants 3728 1833 In the second part of the lecture, Beachy explains how different biotechnology strategies can be used to produce crops resistant to specific viral infections. See more at http://www.ibioseminars. org ibioseminars wOxeJ0aEptU Science & Technology Roger Beachy (Danforth Center) Part 1: Biology of Plant Virus Infection 1682 5874 This seminar describes the cell and molecular biology of plant virus infection. The first lecture will discuss how virus replication centers are set up in plants and how viruses use host cell mechanisms to facilitate cell to cell movement and eventual pathogenesis. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars k-CkqIePaqI Science & Technology Bonnie Bassler (Princeton) Part 2: Vibrio Cholerae Quorum Sensing and Novel Antibiotics 1186 8470 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/chemicalbiologybiophysics/besslar/bonnie-bassler.html Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate with chemical languages that allow them to synchronize their behavior and thereby act as enormous multi-cellular organisms. This process is called quorum sensing and it enables bacteria to successfully infect and cause disease in plants, animals, and humans. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying quorum sensing are leading to the development of novel strategies to interfere with quorum sensing. These strategies form the basis of new therapies to be used as antibiotics. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars CkO9FqNUAAo Science & Technology Richard McIntosh (U. Colorado, Boulder) Part 3: Moving Chromosome to the Spindle Poles: Anaphase A 2487 664 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-mcintosh.html The third lecture presents evidence, largely from McIntosh's lab, that shows how microtubule depolymerization can move chromosomes in vitro and explores the nature of some of the protein complexes that can couple chromosomes to microtubules and take advantage of this reaction. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars GntFBUa6nvs Science & Technology Trudi Schupbach (Princeton Univ) Part 1 Axes formation in the Drosophila Egg 1325 5308 How do complex multicellular organisms develop from single celled eggs with a single nucleus? We study this question in the fruit fly, Drosophila. In these insects, as in many other organisms, the major body plan is predetermined during oogenesis, or egg development. In the first part of the lecture, I will give an introduction to oogenesis in Drosophila, and the techniques we use to find genes that are responsible for determining the major axes of the egg and embryo. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that this process requires cell to cell communication between the oocyte and the surrounding follicle cells. It involves a signaling molecule, Gurken, which provides a localized signal from the oocyte to the follicle cells and ultimately sets up both the anterior-posterior as well as the dorso-ventral axis of the egg. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars krU-zBSZDyo Science & Technology Trudi Schupbach (Princeton Univ) Part 2 Gurken RNA localization 1367 1580 In the second part of the lecture I will introduce our ongoing efforts to understand axis formation in Drosophila oogenesis at a molecular level. In the first part of the lecture, I introduced the localized signaling molecule, Gurken. The RNA that encodes Gurken accumulates in a very restricted area of the oocyte. This localization signals spatial information to the surrounding follicle cells. I will explain how we use a combination of biochemical techniques and live imaging to unravel the mechanisms that localize this RNA during oocyte development. This work is in progress, and the lecture will provide a snapshot of what we know and what the open questions are. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars EnNViWno51o Science & Technology Trudi Schupbach (Princeton Univ) Part 3 Gurken Gradient and Follicle Cell Response 1622 816 The third part of the lecture focuses on the spatial information that is conveyed by the oocyte to the surrounding follicle cells. I discuss how the spatially restricted activation of the EGF receptor by the signaling molecule, Gurken, is relayed into a cascade of information that ultimately sets up the dorso-ventral axis of the embryo. I explain how we use genetic mosaicism in the follicle epithelium to ask questions about this signaling process. I also summarize results that were obtained in collaboration with my colleague, Stas Shvartsman, where we used a combination of experiments and modelling to determine the shape of the Gurken gradient. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars nkGRhYv01ag Science & Technology Eva Nogales (UC Berkeley): Introduction to Electron Microscopy 2816 14046 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/bio-techniques/eva-nogales.htmlTransmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers the possibility of visualizing biological structures at resolution well beyond that of light microscopy. Whether you are interested in the ultrastructure of cells and organelles, or in the detailed molecular structure of biological macromolecules, different modalities of TEM can generally be applied to your system of interest.The lecture reviews the physical principles underlying image formation by the interaction of electrons with matter, introduces you to basic and advanced instruments and to sample preparation techniques. Using a number of biological examples from work in the Nogales lab, the lecture then describes the capabilities of the TEM methodology. Special emphasis is placed on the image processing methods used to obtain three-dimensional information from TEM data. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars JPY-n8uqCVk Science & Technology Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 3: The Evolution of Trichromatic Color Vision 2648 2252 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The third lecture describes recent work on the evolution of trichromatic color vision in humans and our primate relatives. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars MVtIpPjAHyc Science & Technology Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 2: Human Color Vision and its Variations 2685 1969 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The second lecture focuses on the photoreceptors that mediate human color vision and the molecular basis for the common inherited anomalies of color vision. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars _e2yRmyHh9g Science & Technology Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 1B: Photoreceptors and Image Processing 2012 1590 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The first lecture focuses on the structure of the light sensing receptors, the intracellular signals that are triggered by light absorption, and the ways in which the retina extracts information from a complex scene. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars VVEen1SCAPQ Science & Technology Jeremy Nathans (Johns Hopkins) Part 1A: Photoreceptors and Image Processing 2159 4071 http://www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/neuroscience/jeremy-nathans.html In this set of lectures, Jeremy Nathans explores the molecular mechanisms within the retina that mediate the first steps in vision. The first lecture focuses on the structure of the light sensing receptors, the intracellular signals that are triggered by light absorption, and the ways in which the retina extracts information from a complex scene. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars G76DINEwT0s Science & Technology Stephen Mayo Part 2 Designing Protein Libraries 2050 825 http://www.ibioseminars.org/ In this lecture, I discuss the challenges of designing new proteins that fold into a particular structure or perform a particular function. One method is to computationally design a protein based solely upon our knowledge of amino acids and protein folding, a hard task but one which has had recent successes. Another approach is to screen combinatorial libraries of proteins for a desired function. In particular, I will discuss how structure-based computational methods can allow for high mutation rate (to explore a diversity of function) while maintaining stably folded structures (a necessity to preserve stability and function). In the last part of my talk, I discuss how we have used protein libraries to design a new blue fluorescent protein. ibioseminars a8CVm5S35ko Science & Technology Stephen Mayo (Cal Tech) Part 1 Protein Design by Computation 1886 1945 http://www.ibioseminars.org/ In this lecture, I discuss the challenges of designing new proteins that fold into a particular structure or perform a particular function. One method is to computationally design a protein based solely upon our knowledge of amino acids and protein folding, a hard task but one which has had recent successes. Another approach is to screen combinatorial libraries of proteins for a desired function. In particular, I will discuss how structure-based computational methods can allow for high mutation rate (to explore a diversity of function) while maintaining stably folded structures (a necessity to preserve stability and function). See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org ibioseminars PgAbRc0T2po Science & Technology Richard Losick (Harvard) Part 3: Stochasticity and Cell Fate 1498 1319 http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-losick.html Part III presents research showing that B. subtilis uses a bet hedging strategy for coping with uncertainty. ibioseminars ERMcIvzNrVw Science & Technology Richard Losick (Harvard) Part 2: New Research on Multicellularity 1094 1128 http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-losick.html Part II presents research on the capacity of B. subtilis cells to form architecturally complex communities. ibioseminars rj5cqkMtCjg Science & Technology Richard Losick (Harvard) Part 1: Spore Formation in Bacillus Subtilis 1738 5152 http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/bio-mechanisms/richard-losick.html How do simple cells differentiate, assemble into communities, and cope with change? Losick's seminar addresses these questions in the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Part I is an overview of how B. subtilis makes a spore. ibioseminars NFsCqqHUsoE Science & Technology Susan Lindquist (MIT) Part 2: Protein Folding and Prions 1569 2511 http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/susan-lindquist.html Part II: In the case of the yeast prion [PSI], the misfolding of the Sup35 protein results in a simple change in metabolism. When misfolded Sup35 is passed from mother cells to their daughters, this metabolic change is inherited. This unusual genetic mechanism changes the organism in a heritable way due to a self-perpetuating change in protein conformation with no change in its DNA. The mechanism of epigenetic inheritance we have delineated provides a one-step process for the acquisition of complex traits and affords a route to the genetic assimilation of unstable traits that are not yet encoded in the genome. ibioseminars _Q0oOcZminY Science & Technology Susan Lindquist (MIT) Part 1: Protein Folding and Prions 2764 7707 http://ibioseminars.hhmi.org/lectures/cell-bio-a-med/susan-lindquist.html What do mad cows", people with neurodegenerative diseases and yeast cells growing happily on a deadly antibiotic have in common? They are all experiencing the consequences of misfolded proteins. Each organism has thousands of different proteins, which define its nature. Like origami paper, they can take the right path and fold into a swan or take the wrong path and fold into a rapacious hawk. The consequences can be deadly, leading to devastating neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Remarkably, a very similar folding process has been discovered in yeast, where it does no harm and can be studied easily and inexpensively.
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