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3.5.5 Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide chain

In the 1940's experimentation was carried out leading to the hypothesis that one gene on DNA coded for one kind of enzyme. This was later expanded to say that one gene led to one type of protein. Once it was discovered that proteins could be made up of more than one kind of polypeptide chain, then the hypothesis was further modified to say that one gene coded for one polypeptide chain. We know that the polypeptide chain is produced through transcription of the DNA into mRNA, and then the translation of that mRNA into a polypeptide chain. However we now know that post-transcriptional modification can take place whereby the mRNA is modified such that more than one polypeptide chain could be produced from one kind of mRNA. Therefore it is now known that one gene can code for more than one polypeptide chain.
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