Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com//videos Simple permanent tissues These tissues are called simple because they are composed of similar types of cells which have common origin and function. They are further classified into: 1.Parenchyma 2.Chlorenchyma 3.Collenchyma 4.Sclerenchyma Parenchyma is Greek word where "parn" means besides and "enchien" means to pour. Parenchyma is the most specialized primitive tissue. It mainly consist of thin-walled cells which have inter-cellular spaces between them. The cell wall is made up of cellulose. Each parenchymatous cell is iso-diametric, spherical, or oval in shape. It is widely distributed in various plant organs like root, stem, leaf, flowers and fruits. They mainly occur in the cortex epidermis, and pith, as well as in the mesophyll of leaves. The main function of parenchymatous tissue is assimilation and storage of reserve food materials like starch, fats and proteins. They also store waste products such as gums, resins, and inorganic waste materials. The cells of this tissue are characterized by having chloroplasts (containing chlorophyll). It is found in the palisade and spongy tissues in the green leaves and the stem cortex of the herbs where photosynthesis occurs. Collenchyma is Greek word where "Collen" means gum and "enchyma" means infusion. It is a living tissue of primary body like Parenchyma. Cells are thin-walled but possess thickening of cellulose and pectin substances at the corners where number of cells join together. This tissue gives a tensile strength to the plant and the cells are compactly arranged and do not have inter-cellular spaces. It occurs chiefly in hypodermis of stems and leaves. It is absent in monocots and in roots. Collenchymatous tissue acts as a supporting tissue in stems of young plants. It provides mechanical support, elasticity, and tensile strength to the plant body. It helps in manufacturing sugar and storing it as starch. It is present in margin of leaves and resist tearing effect of the wind. Sclerenchyma is Greek word where "Sclrenes" means hard and "enchyma" means infusion. This tissue consists of thick-walled, dead cells. These cells have hard and extremely thick secondary walls due to uniform distribution of lignin. Lignin deposition is so thick that the cell walls become strong, rigid and impermeable to water. Sclerenchymatous cells are closely packed without inter-cellular spaces between them. Thus, they appear as hexagonal net in transverse section. The cells are cemented with the help of lamella. The middle lamella is a wall that lies between adjacent cells. Sclerenchymatous cells mainly occur in hypodermis, pericycle, secondary xylem and phloem. They also occur in endocorp of almond and coconut. It is made of pectin, lignin, protein. The cells of sclerenchyamtous cells can be classified as : 1.Fibres- Fibres are long, elongated sclerenchyamtous cells with pointed ends. 2.Sclerides- Sclerenchymatous cells which are short and possess extremely thick, lamellated, lignified walls with long singular piths. They are called sclerides
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