The Five Kingdoms of life
Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com//videos Five Kingdoms of Life Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Earth is home to a vast variety of living things—organisms of every size and description that live and reproduce in myriad different ways. Scientists divide all these organisms into groups with members that have basic similarities: the broadest divisions are called kingdoms. Currently, life on Earth is divided into five kingdoms: monera, protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia. Within each kingdom, organisms are further subdivided into smaller and smaller groups: phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The species name is specific—it refers to a single organism rather than a group. Monera The monera are the simplest of organisms, almost all microscopic. Each individual is just one prokaryotic cell—a cell that has no membrane bound nucleus or organelles; that is, there are no structures inside the cell. Some monera can produce their own food by photosynthesis (using energy from the sun to produce food) like plants do, but many cannot. Some have whip like flagella that allow them to move. Bacteria and blue-green bacteria belong to the monera. Since the adoption of the five kingdoms, science has determined that some prokaryotes are so different from the rest that the kingdom must be subdivided. These organisms, which evolved along a completely different route, tend to live in extremely harsh environments. They are called archaeobacteria (sometimes spelled archeobacteria). Thus, the kingdom monera may soon be divided into two: archeobacteria and eubacteria, making six kingdoms. Protista Like the monera, protista are single-celled organisms; however, the major difference is the organization of the cell. Protista are eukaryotes: a eukaryotic cell has a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles inside, separate from the rest of the cell contents. Most protista can move. Some produce their own food by photosynthesis; others must ingest other living things. Amoebae, some algae, diatoms and other organisms belong to the protista. Fungi Fungi include both single-celled (yeasts) and multicellular (molds, mushrooms etc.) organisms that are generally visible to the naked eye. Some are quite large. Fungal cells have nuclei; however, they dont move on their own, nor do they make their own food. Most fungi get nutrients from decaying organic material. Plantae Plantae includes the plants: living things that dont move, and that produce their own food through photosynthesis. Plants are multicellular, composed of eukaryotic cells. Plants are generally green, visible to the naked eye, and found in great diversity in many environments on Earth Animalia Animals belong to animalia: multicellular (eukaryotic) organisms that move about and must obtain nutrients by consuming other organisms. Kingdom animalia includes familiar organisms such as mammals, birds, and reptiles, but also less typical things like jellyfish.