Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com//videos Magnetic substances are substances containing aligned dipoles. Dipoles are spinning electrons. In order for something to be magnetic, its dipoles must be aligned with each other, so that they face the same direction. The direction they face create a North end, while the opposite end creates a South end. Some substances, known as ferromagnetic substances, have permanently aligned dipoles. Other substances, such as paramagnetic and dimagnetic substances, require an external magnetic field to align, or 'induce' the dipoles of the substance. To conclude, magnetic substances contain dipoles which are permanently aligned, or can be aligned through the force of external magnetic fields. Magnetic forces are forces that arise from the movement of electrical charge. Maxwell's equations and the Biot-Savart law describe the origin and behavior of the fields that govern these forces. Thus, magnetism is seen whenever electrically charged particles are in motion. This can arise either from movement of electrons in an electric current, resulting in "electromagnetism", or from the quantum-mechanical spin and orbital motion of electrons, resulting in what are known as "permanent magnets". Electron spin is the dominant effect within atoms. The so-called 'orbital motion' of electrons around the nucleus is a secondary effect that slightly modifies the magnetic field created by spin. The magnetic force is actually due to the finite speed (the speed of light) of a disturbance of the electric field which gives rise to forces that appear to be acting along a line at right angles to the charges. In effect, the magnetic force is the portion of the electric force directed to where the charge used to be. For this reason magnetism can be considered to be basically an electric force that is a direct consequence of relativity. Source(s):
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