My friend who ran varsity at a very competitive NCAA Division I school was even able to study abroad (during the summer, however!), so I imagine it's never "prohibited" explicitly... but it might be frowned upon. Some coaches are very strict about training schedules during the off-season, and you should be aware of your commitment to your team.
Most importantly, it's a matter for you to discuss with your coach. When I was talking to coaches as I was looking at different schools, I asked this question of each one of them, because I saw the opportunity to go overseas was an important part of my college experience. It's part of the process of managing expectations.
I recommend checking out Noodle's advice on why you should study abroad and about college for student athletes — you'll find expert-written articles that can help you balance all the diverse goals in your educational path!